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- Constructions And Symbols in The Temple
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History of the Temples
The origin of the term ‘Pura’ as a place of worship for Hindus people in Bali (Indonesia) was existed during the Reign of Dalem in Bali. The term Kahyangan or Hyang was known previously. Before the term ‘Pura’ was known to show a place of worship for Hindus people in Bali. Even during The Ancient in Bali Age the term ‘Ulon’ was used that means holy place or a place used for connecting with God. This thing was written in Sukawana ancient inscription AI (882 M).

So was in Kehen Temple inscription the term Hyang was also mentioned. According to palm manuscript of Usana Dewa, it was Empu Kuturan who taught Hindus people how to make “Kahyangan Dewa” (shrine for God) as he did in east Java. Empu Kuturan was a Hindu Figure who came from Java to Bali during the Reign of Marakata and the youngest child of King Udayana.

The arrival of Empu Kuturan in Bali had changed religious life. It was Empu Kuturan who taught people how to build Sad Kahyangan Jagat, Kahyangan Catur Lokapala, Kahyangan Rwabhineda in Bali. It was he who expanded Besakih Temple into by building Meru Gedong, etc. He also taught the building of Kahyangan Tiga in every customary village in Bali. Besides teaching how to build temple physically, he also taught about spiritual for example: kinds of ceremony, kinds of ‘Pedagingan’, shrine etc as mentioned in Dewa Tattwa palm manuscript.
The uniqueness of Bali Island could be seen from its cultural aspects such as the great number of Hindu religious and Balinese tradition ceremonies. There are many incidental ceremonies like: funeral, cremation, marriage and others, those could not be scheduled regularly, while on the other hand Temple ceremony or local people call “Odalan” is a temple’s anniversary celebration, held regularly according to the traditional Hindu calendar system.

During a Temple’s ceremony the whole villagers around it are totally involved since its preparation few days or weeks before. Temple ceremony commonly lasts for three days, and the greater one last for 11 days or even 42 days. A good ti1me to attend the temple ceremony is in the afternoon till evening
where you could see young women with beautiful temple offerings on their heads in long parade lead to the temple, mass praying, traditional dances or performance and much other ritual activity.

To get into the temple during its ceremony days, Temple custom strictly should be put on, while for other days one should wear polite dress with Temple sash (often viable at every front of the temple) circle around waist . It all means to show respect ness to God as well as to local tradition which ensure a safe and enjoyable visit. Temple in Bali is called Pura, which translates “literally as “place”, and the temple can be classified into four character of the temple they are:
1. Public Temple 2. Territorial Temple
3. Functional Temple 4. Family Temple

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The main characteristic of these types of temples is their use to worship God, Hyang Widhi (Brahman) in this various forms or ‘Ista Dewata’ by Hindus community not only those from Bali but also from somewhere else. Public Temples are also called ‘Khayangan Jagat Temples’ with their typical and general characteristics such as
(1). Pura Agung Besakih,
(2). Pura Ulun Danu,
(3). Pura Lempuyang,
(4). Pura Luhur Andakasa,
(5). Pura Goa Lawah,
(6). Pura Luhur Uluwatu,
(7). Pura Luhur Watukaru,
(8). Pura Puncak Mangu,
(9). Pura Pusering Jagat

Other temples that are also grouped into public temples besides being used to worship God in these various manifestations, they are also used to honor mighty of The Great Priest or Holy Priest, due to all Hindus people feel in debt with these Priests for their merits to have given guidance on Hindus Learning, in their Holy trips to Bali. For instance holy trip done by Danghyang Nirartha or also known as Abhiseka Danghyang Dwijendra or Ida Pedanda Shakti Bawu Rawuh, because of His role and position as ‘Dang Adi Guru Loka’ (the Priest) at certain places he had passed through during such holy trip, he built temples. Temples that are grouped into Dang Khayangan are;
(1). Pura Purancak ,
(2). Pura Rambut Siwi,
(3). Pura Srijong,
(4). Pura-Pura Luhur Pakendungan,
(5). Pura Luhur Tanah Lot,
(6). Pura Pulaki,
(7). Pura Ponjok Batu,
(8). Pura Sakenan,
(9). Pura Peti Tenget,
(10). Pura Luhur Uluwatu.

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